We are what we eat, but do we really know what we eat? There are many misconceptions in what a balanced diet is. However, knowing the science behind nutrition can help us greatly.
When we eat, the food is altered so that our body can use the nutrients (e.g. carbohydrates, proteins and fats) in it as a source of energy or to maintain the body components. Carbohydrates (or sugars) are our main fuel, and like proteins and fats, they have to be transformed in our digestive system into small sugars that can be absorbed by the body.
Such transformation is carried out by specialized molecules, enzymes, that can accelerate chemical reactions and that need specific conditions (temperature and acidity of the environment) to work optimally.